Kinds of the text ~ BECK-FK

Kinds of the text

1. Recounts
1.1. Purpose To tell the readers what happened in the past through a sequence of events.

1.2. Text organization Personal Recounts:
- Orientation (who were involved in the story, when, and where)
- Events (tell what happened in a chronological order)
- Evaluation (comments of writer/speaker about the experience)
- Re-orientation (The conclusion of the experience)
Factual Recounts:
- Orientation (who were involved in the story, when, and where)
- Events (tell what happened in a chronological order)

1.3. Language features - The use of nouns and pronouns
- The use of action verbs
- The use of past tenses
- The use of time conjunction
- The use of adverbs and adverbs of phrases
- Adjectives

My Adventure at Leang-Leang Cave

On Sunday, my parents, my best fruend Novi, and I visited a cave at Maros called Leang-leang . It was my first time to visit the cave, better yet, my best friend came to visit it with me!
The cave was famous for its primitive cave wall paintings which were some hand prints and wild boar paintings. The cave and its surroundings was turned into a national park, so it was taken care of. My parents took a rest in a small hut for visitors of the park, while Novi and I adventured around the cave with a guide. We had to climb some metal stairs to get to the cave, because the cave was embedded into a small mountain. Next stop was a place where some seashells littered the ground and some were actually piled into a big mound! The guide said that these piles of seashells are called kjokkenmoddinger, or kitchen trash. The humans who lived here ate the shells and dumped the left overs in their 'kitchen'. The last place was a small museum where they have skeletons of the humans who lived in the caves. The skeletons along with some roughly made jewelry and weapons were placed inside glass cases for display. The walls of the museum were adorned with photographs taken when they did an excavation there.
After a quick lunch with Novi and my parents, we decided it was time to go back home. We really had the time of our lives!

2. Narratives

2.1. Purpose To amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experience in difference ways. Narratives always deal with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into solution in the problem.

2.2. Text organization - Orientation (who were involved in the story, when, and where)
- Complication (a problem arises followed by other problem)
- Resolution (solution to the problem)

2.3. Language features - The use of noun phrases
- The use of connectives
- The use of adverbial phrases of time and place
- The use of the simple past tense
- The use of action verbs
- The use of saying verbs
- The use of thinking verbs, feeling verbs, verbs of sense

Romeo and Juliet's Romantic and Tragic Story

In the town of Verona there lived two families, the Capulets and the Montagues. They engaged in a bitter feud. Among the Montagues was Romeo, a hot-blooded young man with an eye for the ladies. One day, Romeo attended the feast of the Capulets', a costume party where he expected to meet his love, Rosaline, a haughty beauty from a well-to-do family. Once there, however, Romeo's eyes felt upon Juliet, and he thought of Rosaline no more.
The vision of Juliet had been invading his every thought. Unable to sleep, Romeo returned late that night to the Juliet's bedroom window. There, he was surprised to find Juliet on the balcony, professing her love for him and wishing that he were not a "Montague", a name behind his own. "What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet." Romeo was ready to deny his name and professed his love. The two agreed to meet at nine o-clock the next morning to be married.
Early the next morning, Romeo came to Friar Lawrence begging the friar to marry him to Juliet. The Friar performed the ceremony, praying that the union might someday put an end to the feud between the two families. He advised Romeo kept the marriage a secret for a time.
On the way home, Romeo chanced upon his friend Mercutio arguing with Tybalt, a member of the Capulet clan. That qurreling last caused Merquito died. Romeo was reluctant no longer. He drew his sword and slew Tybalt died. Romeo realized he had made a terrible mistake. Then Friar Lawrence advised Romeo to travel to Mantua until things cool down. He promised to inform Juliet.
In the other hand, Juliet's father had decided the time for her to marry with Paris. Juliet consulted Friar Lawrence and made a plot to take a sleeping potion for Juliet which would simulate death for three days. The plot proceeded according to the plan. Juliet was sleeping in death.
Unfortunately, The Friar's letter failed to reach Romeo. Under the cover of darkness, he broke into Juliet's tomb. Romeo kissed the lips of his Juliet one last time and drank the poison. Meanwhile, the effects of the sleeping potion wear off. Juliet woke up calling for Romeo. She found her love next to her but was lying dead, with a cup of poison in his hand. She tried to kiss the poison from his lips, but failed. Then Juliet put out his dagger and plunged it into her breast. She died

3. Procedure
3.1. Purpose To help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instructions or directions.

3.2. Text organization - Goal (the final purpose of doing the instructions)
- Materials (ingredients, utensils, equipment to do the instructions)
- Step (a set of instructions to achieves the final purpose)

3.3. Language features - Use of imperatives
- Use of action verbs
- Use of connectives
- Use of adverbial phrase

How to insert SIM Card Cellphone

Cellphone is a modern communication device which connects one to the others by voice, written message and data. However this device can not work until the SIM card is inserted.
When inserting the SIM Card to cellphone, make sure that the cellphone has been switched off and follow the direction bellow:
First of all, press the locking catch and slide the cover then lift it off the phone.
After that, push two catches in the opposite directions and remove the battery.
Next, slide the SIM card carefully into the slot and make sure that the golden connect arson are facing to the connector of the phone.
Then, put the battery and align it until snaps into its place.
Finally, insert the two catches of the back cover corresponding slot in the phone and slide the cover forward button of the phone until locks into place
Don't forget to switch on the cellphone. Wait until it is ready to use.

4. Descriptive
4.1. Purpose To describe a particular place.

4.2. Text organization - Identification (mention the special participant)
- Description (mention the part, quality, and characteristics of the subject being described)

4.3. Language features - The use of adjectives and compound adjectives
- The use of linking verbs/ relating verbs
- The use of simple present tense
- The use of degree of comparison


Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world. It was built by a Muslim Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his dear wife at Agra.

Taj Mahal is a Mausoleum that houses the grave of queen Mumtaz Mahal. The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right), and several other palatial buildings. The Taj is at the farthest end of this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it.

The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements.

Its central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by four subsidiary domed chambers. The four graceful, slender minarets are 162.5 feet each. The central domed chamber and four adjoining chambers include many walls and panels of Islamic decoration.
Taj Mahal is built entirely of white marble. Its stunning architectural beauty is beyond adequate description, particularly at dawn and sunset. The Taj seems to glow in the light of the full moon. On a foggy morning, the visitors experience the Taj as if suspended when viewed from across the Jamuna river.

5. News Item
5.1. Purpose to inform readers, listeners, or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.

5.2. Text organization - Newsworthy events
- Background events
- Sources

5.3. Language features - Information on the use of headlines
- The use of action verbs
- The use of saying verbs
- The use of passive sentences
- The use of adverbs in passive sentences

Winning Award for Airport Toilet

Surabaya's Juanda International Airport has won the Culture and Tourism Ministry's 2009 toilet award, beating out 2007 winner Denpasar's Ngurah Rai Airport, which now drops to fourth. Indonesia's main gateway, Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, just outside Jakarta, moves up from fourth in 2007 to second, in the biennial "Sapta Pesona Clean Public Toilet Award".

The award was first handed out in 2007, and has so far involved only international airports. Acting Culture and Tourism Minister Muhammad Nuh said he expected the award in future to also cover public toilets at tourist sites across the country.

"Granting the award to those running public toilets at tourist sites is expected to improve the quality of products and services, particularly in term of cleanliness . as part of efforts to enhance the image of national culture," Nuh said during the award presentation ceremony.

6. Explanation
6.1. Purpose to explain the processes involved in the formation and working of natural or socio cultural phenomena.

6.2. Text organization - A general statement to position the reader
- A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs
- Closing

6.3. Language features - Focus on generic, non-human participants
- The use of general and abstract nouns
- The use of action verbs
- The use of simple present tense
- The use of passive voice
- The use of conjunction of time and cause
- The use of noun phrases
- The use of complex sentences
- The use of technical language


The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). A tsunami is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or a sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale.

A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries.

Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunami, and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates.

As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium, it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.

Tsunami always bring great damage. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area.

7. Review
7.1. Purpose - To summarise, analyse, and respond to art works
- To critique an art work or event for a public audience

7.2. Text organization - Orientation (background information on the text)
- Interpretative Recount (including characters and plot)
- Evaluation (Concluding statement: judgement, opinion, or recommendation)
- Evaluative Summation (the last opinion consisting of the appraisal or punchline of the artwork being reviewed)

7.3. Language features - The use of complex and Compound sentences
- The use of adjectives and phrases of appraisal
- The use of metaphorical expressions
- The use of noun phrase

2012 is Roland Emmerich's film which uses the Mayan calendar and other end-of-days prophecies for their doomsday scenario. In the Mayan calendar indirectly implied live on earth will be destroyed at the end of the year 2012. It imagines the world coming to an end in 2012. And the world is in ruin.

2012 film brings off a series of wonders. It starts when John Cusack drives a limo through the streets of Los Angeles as freeways and skyscrapers crumble all around him from the shock of a 10.5 earthquake. The climax occurs aboard the giant ark, when an equipment malfunction almost threatens the entire mission.
Some people say this film is very great. Because the images on the film looks like real. combined with good sound effects, making this film was intense. therefore, this film received a very high rating.
I think this movie is perfect, with a combination of music and images on film.
This film also suitable to watch with the family when the holidays.

8. Report
8.1. Purpose to presents information about something, as it is.

8.2. Text organization - General classification
- Description

8.3. Language features - Introducing group or general aspect
- Using conditional logical connection
- Using Simple Present Tense

The heart is the most important part of the body. It is the center of life. However, the heart is only as big as a closed hand.
The heart is a muscle and it beats about seventy times per minute throughthout a person’s life.
The heart pumps blood from your heart to all parts of your body. The heart is made up of four chambers or small “rooms”. The top chamber are called the right and left auricle sand the bottom chambers are the right and left ventricles.
When blood enters the heart. It is in dark reddish color because it countains carbon dioxide. The blood enters the right auricle and then the right ventricle. When the heart contracts, it forces the blood to the lungs where the blood receives oxygen. It then goes to the left auricle. The heart contracts again, and the blood goes to the left ventricle and is then forced out into the body. The blood gathers carbon dioxide and returns to the heart, and the process begins again.

9. Analytical Exposition

9.1. Purpose To reveal the readers that something is the important case.

9.2. Text organization - Thesis
- Arguments
- Reiteration/Conclusion

9.3. Language features - Using modals
- Using action verbs
- Using thinking verbs
- Using adverbs
- Using adjective
- Using technical terms
- Using general and abstract noun
- Using connectives/transition

Why Exercise is Important

The majority of us claim that we do not have time for exercise. We feel too busy to do that. However, many expert said that exercise has great role in making our body healthy

Being physically active offers many advantage. In physical reword, exercise can reduce weight then our body will become fitter. Exercise is also believed to reduce stress levels, improve sleep patterns, and reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes and some forms of cancer. Beside physical advantage, exercise also brings good effects mentally. Due to the fitter body, exercise can make us feel refreshed and happy then we can increase our life quality and expectancy.

How can we do exercise while we are busy? Such question is commonly found among us. Actually exercise can be done in simple ways. We can go walking while shopping. In the office we can take stair rather than lift to run up and down. Or we can go cycling while enjoy the leisure time.

Over all, doing exercise is little bit difficult in busy life but the little bit of exercise will help better.

10. Hortatory Exposition

10.1. Purpose To persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done.

10.2. Text organization - Thesis
- Arguments
- Recommendation

10.3. Language features - Using Simple Present Tense
- Using modals
- Using action verbs
- Using thinking verbs
- Using adverbs
- Using adjective
- Using technical terms
- Using general and abstract noun
- Using connectives/transition

Removing Lead from Petrol
In all the discussion over the removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesn't seem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and the country.
While I realize my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the country, where you only see the another car every five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.
Those who want to penalize older, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don't seem to appreciate that, in the country, there is no public transport to fall back upon and one's own vehicle is the only way to get about.
I feel that the country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live in the city.

11. Discussion
11.1. Purpose To present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue.

11.2. Text organization - Issue
- Arguments for and against
- Conclusion

11.3. Language features - Using Simple Present Tense
- Use of relating verb/to be
- Using thinking verb
- Using general and abstract noun
- Using conjunction/transition
- Using modality
- Using adverb of manner

Hacking: Pro and Contra?

Do you know what a hacker is? Well, a hacker is a person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems on computers and they like to stretch the capability of the systems. And you know what, the activities they do in the computers are called ‘hacking’.

So, what’s the problem with ‘hacking and its hackers’? Well, the problem is whether ‘hacking and its hackers’ is legal or illegal? What I mean is that people in the world have many different views about hacking and the hackers. Some of them take sides, but many object.

To get back to what I was saying previously, let us see the positive points of a hacker, shall we? Although in most places breaking into computer systems is considered illegal, I believe that hackers don’t do anything illegal because they only want to know and try the systems. I dare to say that a hacker likes finding the strengths and the weaknesses of a computer system. They feel proud if they can find the weaknesses. So I don’t really see the crimes in this case. In addition, these hackers sometimes help the police catch the ‘white collar criminals’, such as bank robbers, money launderers, credit card forgers. For example, in 2000, the U.S. hackers caught some Singaporean hackers who made ‘Virus Love’ to break up the programs of the U.S. National Security system.

Nevertheless, those who object to the good points of a hacker say that hacking is a crime. The reason is that some hackers use their brilliant skills to break into banks and other vital institutions where they can get money, destroy information, and the worst thing is they can get secret information and sell it to another country. This is a treachery.
Take for example, in 1994, The U.S. government broke a conspiracy of computer hackers out of Majorca, Spain. These hackers were responsible for accessing and eliminating 190,000 telephone credit card numbers over computer bulletin boards in America and Europe. Seeing this fact, I don’t blame those who think negatively about hackers.
To put the whole thing in a nut shell, I personally think that hackers are not bad people with their brilliant skills. However, they could be bad because of money orientation to get the wealth. That’s just the point.

12. Spoof
12.1. Purpose To tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers.

12.2. Text organization - Orientation
- Event(s)
- Twist

12.3. Language features - Using Past Tense
- Using action verb
- Using adverb
- Chronologically arrange
Abu Nawas and the King Aaron

The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. “You want me, your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. “Yes, you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. I want you to leave the country. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. “If that is what you want, I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. Then “Remember, from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly.

The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. He had not left the country yet. Instead leaving the country, Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. “Hey Abu Nawas, why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore, didn’t he?” said the guards. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No, I do not step on the ground. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas.
The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace.
Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. The king wondered and said “Abu, I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. You have not left this country”. The King continued “And now, look at you. You walk on stilts like a child. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious.

“I remember exactly what you said, Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. And since yesterday, I have been walking on this stilts. So you see, Your Majesty, I do not step on the ground of this country”. The king was not able to say anything.

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Penulis : Muhammad Ikhsan ~ Sebuah blog yang menyediakan berbagai macam informasi

Artikel Kinds of the text ini dipublish oleh Muhammad Ikhsan pada hari Friday, February 25, 2011. Semoga artikel ini dapat bermanfaat.Terimakasih atas kunjungan Anda silahkan tinggalkan komentar.sudah ada 0 komentar: di postingan Kinds of the text


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